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Trenbolone enanthate unlike testosterone-based steroids, does not result in the development of feminine sexual characteristics in men. This anabolic steroid has the ability of stimulating protein synthesis gains that prove useful in new tissue formation that, in turn, promote muscle growth or hypertrophy. Moreover, Trenbolone enanthate is used by those into boxing, MMA, and cycling as it helps with strength and speed. Trenbolone enanthate can demonstrate unmatched efficacy in reducing body fat levels as it has a strong cortisol-reducing effect along with the ability to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor.

Trenbolone Acetate has the molecular formula of C20H24O3 and has an anabolic-androgenic ratio of 500:500. It has an active life of 2-3 days and has the molecular weight of 270.3706 g/mol at the base. Trenbolone Acetate, a 19-nor steroid, is derived from the compound Nandrolone. It is characterized by strong androgenic properties and no estrogenic activity. This anabolic steroid has a binding affinity for androgen receptor five times the strength Testosterone. Trenbolone acetate is admired globally by elite athletes as it can dramatically improve the uptake of nitrogen by muscles and improve the level of protein synthesis. Ideal for cutting cycles, Trenbolone Acetate does not get metabolized by aromatase or 5α-reductase into estrogenic compounds like estradiol or into Dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

The primary difference between Trenbolone Acetate and Trenbolone enanthate is esters. While Trenbolone enanthate, featured by comparatively less esters, peaks at a slow pace and leaves the system slowly, Trenbolone Acetate with more esters peaks faster and leaves the system faster. Moreover, Trenbolone Acetate is better when it comes to maintaining stable blood levels, especially when athletes want to gain muscle mass and strength when following a dieting regimen. Furthermore, the human body finds it simpler to absorb a higher percentage of milligrams when injected with the acetate form rather than in the enanthate form.

A big majority of athletes and bodybuilders, especially those into elite sports and professional bodybuilding, prefer Trenbolone acetate over Trenbolone enanthate. This is because the enanthate version of Trenbolone doesn’t result in as much hardening of muscles as experienced with the acetate version. While the acetate version is known to promote cutting, the enanthate version is used for adding muscle size. Beginners to the world of anabolic compounds should opt for Trenbolone Acetate instead of Trenbolone enanthate as Tren acetate gets out of the system quickly. However, the enanthate version of Tren is rarely associated with night sweats, insomnia, and over-aggression and allows athletes to reap the optimum benefits of the potent steroids. Trenbolone enanthate is less likely to result in the dreaded Tren cough and involves less pinning but the use of this steroid involves more of patience as results can take time.

The fact that Trenbolone acetate is easily and more readily available puts it ahead of the enanthate version. In addition, this short ester compound is better than enanthate version when it comes to controlling and manipulating blood levels.

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The use of the anabolic steroid trenbolone has a long history in the bodybuilding but it has never really been considered a steroid suitable for therapeutic use in medicine. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved tren for use in humans. The media has often demonized it as a dangerous veterinarian steroid never intended for human use. However, the perception of trenbolone may soon change.

Joshua Yarrow and his colleagues at the University of Florida feel that Trenbolone may be a viable alternative to testosterone for androgen replacement therapy. The researchers report that Trenbolone enanthate may have certain advantages over testosterone that may make it an appealing treatment option for some individuals. Bodybuilders may be familiar with many of these findings. Trenbolone is not adversely affected by the aromatase or 5-alpha reductase enzymes that metabolize testosterone into estradiol and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. Bodybuilders have enjoyed tren for years precisely because they are able to avoid steroid side effects related to estrogen and DHT.

Yarrow reports that low-dose Trenbolone enanthate effectively produces anabolic effects in muscle size and partially maintains bone mineral density without causing prostate enlargement or polycythemia in castrated laboratory rats. Supraphysiological dosages of Testosterone enanthate were required to produce anabolic effects similar to low-dose trenbolone administration. However, negative side effects of prostate enlargement and elevated hemoglobin became problematic at this dose of testosterone.

Selective androgen receptor modulators may be the current darlings of scientific research into alternative options for androgen replacement therapy, but University of Florida researchers are excited by the “androgen receptor modulators-like potential” of trenbolone.

They suggest that the actions of trenbolone are similar to selective androgen receptor modulators. Low-dose Trenbolone is called “androgen receptor modulators-like” because of the positive anabolic effects in muscle and bone without negative side androgenic side effects of prostate enlargement or polycythemia. Trenbolone may have benefits over testosterone in terms of androgen receptor activation, the upregulation of growth factors such as IGF-1 and fibroblast growth factor, and anticatabolic mechanisms.

Competitive bodybuilders have often preferred using Trenbolone in the weeks prior to a bodybuilding competition due to its purported effects at accelerating fat loss. The current study confirmed that trenbolone has more potent lipolytic effects on visceral adipose tissue than testosterone milligram per milligram. Furthermore, visceral fat loss increased in a dose-dependent manner with trenbolone. In other words, the more tren used, the greater the fat loss.

Trenbolone’s lack of aromatization, while generally desirable, has often been problematic for bodybuilders who have used Trenbolone as the only steroid in a cycle. Therefore, most bodybuilders include an aromatizable steroid such as testosterone or Dianabol in their trenbolone steroid stacks.

Researchers also recognize that the lack of aromatization could be a potential problem if Trenbolone is used alone in androgen replacement therapy. In their study, trenbolone only provided a partial bone protective effect when administered to castrated rats. The authors attribute this to the non-aromatizable nature of Trenbolone. They conclude that low-dose Trenbolone enanthate treatment has androgen receptor modulators-like effects on muscle/fat body composition. Androgen replacement therapy with low-dose Trenbolone could potentially produce anabolic gains comparable to supraphysiological testosterone treatment without the associated side effects. The therapeutic risk-benefit profile of low-dose trenbolone appears superior to supraphysiological testosterone treatment; however, additional research into this treatment option is necessary.

The researchers should be applauded for dispassionately and objectively researching the potential of trenbolone in androgen replacement therapy. Trenbolone is an anabolic steroid that has been demonized more than others due to its limited use (in pellet implants used by veterinarians to increase muscle growth in livestock). Fortunately, they looked past the political stigma associated with trenbolone to revisit a therapeutic use for an old steroid.

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Trestolone ace, more popularly known as Ment, has developed quite a reputation over the last several years for being an exceedingly potent anabolic steroid. Combined with its initial long-
term absence from the market, its current limited availability, and a market nearly devoid of high quality clones, its allure among anabolic steroid users has been further increased, taking on
an almost super-drug status similar to what we saw when the now defunct Parabolan ceased production.

Belonging to the 19-nor family of steroids, Ment is more properly known as 7-alpha-methyl-nortestosterone, yet despite its close association to this class of anabolic steroids, Ment displays several characteristics more commonly attributed to Testosterone. Nowhere is this more evident than in the area of male sexual functioning. Anyone who has been around the anabolic steroid subculture long enough is aware that the 19-nor family of drugs is notorious for causing sexual dysfunction in males. Side effects such as low libido and/or the inability to obtain an  erection characterize the use of anabolic steroids like Nandrolone or Trenbolone.

This is where Ment differs. In fact, Ment is the only anabolic steroid in production today that is capable of sustaining normal male physiology in the complete absence of testosterone, including sexual functioning. This is one of the vital traits which has qualified Ment for consideration as a male contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy, as sexual dysfunction would  be an unacceptable side effect in users seeking medical treatment for these reasons.

With regard to cycle set-up, the inclusion of Ment allows for the revision of one of its most basic tenants, which traditionally says that testosterone should be included in every cycle. Although I personally do not agree with that philosophy in all cases, there are many good reasons why Testosterone should generally be included in one’s cycle. However, Ment changes all that, making the inclusion of Testosterone optional and not a necessity. All the side effects which normally present themselves in a state of Testosterone deficiency are absent when Ment is employed. This is a big advantage unique to Ment alone and which enables an anabolic steroid user to think outside the box when designing his/her cycle.

Ment demonstrates a strong binding affinity for the AR receptor, being greater than that of Testosterone and even Nandrolone. Like Testosterone, it also has the ability to aromatize, making the concomitant use of an AI desirable in times of estrogen excess. As most anabolic steroid users are aware and which recent research confirms, estrogen plays a role in the muscle growth process both directly and indirectly, which is part of the reason why aromatizable steroids often impart superior mass gains compared to their non-aromatizing counterparts. So, while aromatization is beneficial in part, it can quickly be turned into a negative quality if not properly managed, resulting in side effects such as: gynecomastia, water retention, heightened blood pressure, increased HPTA suppression, mood swings, and the accumulation of additional bodyfat.

Other defining characteristics of Ment include a lack of DHT conversion and like most injectable preparations, Ment is also non-hepatotoxic in nature. In addition, Ment does not bind to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), increasing the potency of this drug considerably. When administering drugs such as testosterone, over 95% of the injected anabolic steroid ultimately ends up either attaching to SHBG, converting to DHT, or aromatizing into estrogen, leaving only a small amount of the original dose left for muscle building functions. Once a hormone attaches to the protein SHBG, it remains bound (in most cases) for the entire life of the steroid, rendering it completely useless. Anabolic steroid which avoid SHBG binding allow a significantly greater percentage of the injected drug to reach its intended target at the androgen receptor and initiate the muscle growth process.

When determining Ment’s suitability as a prescription medication for male contraception or HRT, its effect on the prostate is of critical importance. This make or break factor was evaluated right from the start, with promising results. Research shows that Ment has a lesser effect on the prostate compared to testosterone per effective dose, reducing the potential risk of prostate issues in older men receiving treatment for HRT or otherwise. While younger users typically pay little heed to this aspect of their health, they may be glad they did later on down the road.

One area where Ment isn’t quite so friendly is that of HPTA suppression. Research shows that Ment is a full 12X as suppressive as Testosterone on a mg to mg basis. However, this side effect is deemed to be a necessary benefit when looking to develop this drug as a birth control medication. Any anabolic steroid used for birth control purposes requires an exceptionally high success rate at preventing pregnancy, and that will only come by way of significant suppression of spermatogenesis. In reality, most steroid users end up largely infertile by cycle’s end anyway, due to the number and quantity of anabolic steroid used.

Now let’s move onto the more exciting stuff; namely its ability to build muscle tissue. Most anabolic steroid users are primarily interested in one thing, which is…”How much muscle will this stuff really help me add?” While this question is impossible to answer, due to the numerous influential variables involved, we can look to both medical research and real-world experience to help provide us with a clearer picture of what to expect. The following quote is an excerpt taken from a study comparing the effects of Testosterone and Trestolone:

Study comparing Ment to Testosterone: “The ability of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone acetate (MENT) to increase the weights of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats was four times higher than that of testosterone, while its effect on the weights of bulbocavernosus plus levator ani muscles (muscle), was 10 times that of testosterone.

Referencing the paragraph above, we see that Ment delivers 10X the myotropic effect (muscle building) of testosterone, on a mg to mg basis. Based on these figures, this would make Ment more potent than any other non-toxic injectable currently sold on the market. I comparison to the exceedingly potent steroid Trenbolone, which is often used as a benchmark for potency, Ment outperforms it by a full 250%.

It is important to note that the results witnessed in this study were obtained by using primates as test subjects, so while it is likely that the results will translate pretty well to humans, there is no substitute for real-world human testing being conducted specifically for the purpose of performance enhancement. The overwhelming majority of our BB’ing knowledge, as it relates to the optimal application of PED for the purpose of muscle growths, was gained through the combined experience of generations of athletes. While quality versions of this steroid are scarce,
enough individuals have experimented with this steroid at this point in time, for us to have a good idea of what to expect.

First of all, the bodybuilder should not expect to grow muscle at 10X the rate of Testosterone at an equivalent dose, but there is no doubt that one’s gains will measurably surpass what is attainable with an equal dose of Testosterone. Out of the few dozen people I have personally known who have used this anabolic steroid and based on the user experiences of others I am aware of, I would most aptly describe this anabolic steroid as a type of “super-testosterone”, in terms of results. Visually, the musculature tends to take on a similar appearance. This is not a great anabolic steroid for contest prep or achieving a hard & dry look, but if sheer bulk accompanied by some water retention is what you’re looking for, Ment will deliver. Like Testosterone, estrogen-induced water retention can be substantially reduced with the concurrent use of an AI, allowing a decently hard and dry appearance to manifest.

Even though Ment may behave similarly to Testosterone in terms of visual results and side effects, it is important to note that Ment’s ability to trigger these side effects at equivalent doses is
much more exaggerated compared to testosterone. This is due largely to its increased androgenic potency. According to use feedback, Ment also carries with it the risk of developing certain “tren-like” sides in some users, especially at higher dosages, although not all users have reported this.

As far as dosing is concerned, no definitive guidelines have yet been formed, although in my opinion it is likely that Ment will probably end up being dosed along the same lines as Trenbolone, with the average dose falling somewhere 200-500 mg per week. Of course, not all users will adhere to these guidelines, with some electing to administer a more hearty dosage. Overall, we are looking at a very potent anabolic steroid, both on paper and in the real-world, which is capable of eliciting serious gains in mass and strength over a relatively short period of time. As availability increases, look for this anabolic steroid to take up a more permanent residence in the arsenals of bodybuilders and strength athletes alike.

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These days, there probably isn’t a bodybuilder alive that hasn’t heard of trenbolone. In today’s drug circles, it has attained nearly super-hero status as an anabolic agent. “Nectar of the gods”…“A steroid on steroids”…and “indispensable” are just some of the terms which have been used to describe this highly desirable drug. There is no single characteristic responsible for Trenbolone’s unique effects on the musculature. Rather, it is a precise combination of attributes which provide such amazing results.

There are few non-methylated drugs capable of functioning as both a mass builder and cutter, while excelling at both. In fact, if pressed to name another non-methylated drug capable of duplicating trenbolone’s performance, I would be unable. Typically, Trenbolone is known for its ability to generate substantial gains in dense, dry muscle tissue; a trait which has no doubt earned it a top spot in both contest prep and off-season programs alike. Likewise, its strength building and psyche altering capabilities have made it popular among strength-power athletes, but rather than re-hash these well known traits, I want to spend a bit of time talking about some of the less publicized qualities of Trenbolone.

One often debated topic in the steroid world is the role of estrogen in the muscle growth process. Up until the last decade, many bodybuilders were taught to avoid the use of anti-estrogenic drugs when in the off-season, as it was commonly believed that the elevated estrogen level achieved with aromatizable drugs was necessary for maximizing muscle growth. This belief was born out of real-world experience, with many bodybuilders noting a reduction in overall weight gain when administering these drugs. Were these old-school bodybuilders simply confusing estrogen induced water retention with genuine muscle growth, or was there more to the story?

In recent years, the phobia surrounding anti-estrogenic drugs has greatly diminished. While science has confirmed the importance of estrogen in the growth process, most steroid users now believe that keeping levels within the low-normal range is more than sufficient to obtain all its growth benefits. To this end, aromatase inhibitors such as Aromasin and Arimidex are freely employed in the programs of today’s steroid using bodybuilders. So, how does this apply to trenbolone, a non-aromatizing steroid, you might ask?

In one particular study designed to examine the relationship between Trenbolone and estrogen as it pertains to IGF-1 levels, 20 feedlot steers were randomly assigned into one of 4 groups and provided with varying combinations of these drugs. There 4 groups are as follows:

  1. Control (received no Trenbolone or estrogen). 
  2. Trenbolone only. 
  3. Estrogen only. 
  4. Trenbolone + estrogen.

At the onset of treatment the animals were weighed and muscle biopsies were performed. This was repeated on days 7, 14, and 28.

In animals treated with estrogen only, IGF-1 levels increased by nearly 75% in only 28 days. Somewhat surprisingly, IGF-1 readings were nearly identical in the Trenbolone + estrogen group, while the Trenbolone only group experienced no increase in IGF-1 levels. These results indicate that estrogen alone was entirely responsible for mediating the increase in IGF-1 seen in the Trenbolone + estrogen group. While animal studies are not always directly applicable to humans, this study strongly suggests that the anabolic effects of Trenbolone are further enhanced in a high estrogen environment.

We find support for this position when evaluating the real-world results of the Testosterone-Trenbolone stack. Despite Trenbolone’s much higher anabolic rating, superior gains in muscle mass are noted when Trenbolone is combined with Testosterone, compared to using Trenbolone alone at an equal dosage. In this case it is Testosterone, rather than synthetic estrogen as utilized in the study above, which supplies the necessary estrogenic component via aromatization. Although science has yet to uncover the ideal ratio of testosterone to estrogen in muscle seeking bodybuilders, it is clear that estrogen amplifies the anabolic effects of Trenbolone, as well as non-aromatizing anabolic steroids in general. More research is needed in this area.

Trenbolone may also stimulate growth through enhanced proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, which may be mediated through an increase in IGF-1 sensitivity. In order to understand why this is important, let’s first look at the role of satellite cells in the muscle growth process. After a hard training session, the muscle cell proteins within muscle fibers sustain damage, which activates a special type of stem cell known as satellite cells. These cells, which are located between the basal lamina and plasma membrane (an area directly outside the muscle fibers), are quickly shuttled to the site of injury, initiating the muscle regeneration process. They then begin to multiple (proliferate) by fusing to other satellite cells and to existing muscle fibers. A portion of these satellite cells will remain as organelles, but the majority will differentiate (the process of turning immature stem cells into mature muscle cells) and fuse to muscle fibers, either creating new muscle protein stands (myofibrils) or helping to repair previously damaged muscle fiber. The formation of these myofibrils (muscle fibers) directly leads to an overall increase in the size of the muscle.

This muscle repair process is aided by numerous growth factors, such as testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, IGF-1, HGF, and FGF. These hormones influence the rate and amount of protein that is deposited in the muscle during the repair process, with higher levels speeding up the muscle growth process and lower levels slowing down the process. In particular, IGF-1 and FGF have a direct influence on the proliferative response of satellite cells. In multiple studies, trenbolone has been shown to enhance this proliferative response, which the researchers suggest is due to trenbolone’s ability to increase satellite cell sensitivity to IGF-1.

This research further supports the notion that trenbolone should be used in a high estrogen environment, as trenbolone’s likely ability increase satellite cell sensitivity to IGF-1 cannot be fully capitalized on without the additional increase in IGF-1 that only estrogen can provide. Together, trenbolone and estrogen work synergistically to promote an increased hypertrophic response.

One of the most prized benefits of Trenbolone is its ability to provide a hard, dense look to the muscles. This look is partially attributable to the reduction in subcutaneous water which accompanies trenbolone use, which many refer to as a ‘drying-out’ effect. Generally speaking, this reduction in sub-q water levels takes place relatively quickly–just 1-2 weeks, after which point water levels are maintained as long as Trenbolone remains part of the program. However, many trenbolone users have noted an additional increase in muscle hardness and density which seems to take place in the months following this initial drying out phase.

One possible explanation for this effect is Trenbolone’s ability to protect against intramuscular fat accumulation. While certain androgens, such as Trenbolone and Oxandrolone, have been to shown to reduce visceral, as well as subcutaneous bodyfat levels, the potential for intramuscular fat reduction is less often discussed. In studies involving cattle, Trenbolone has been shown to reduce intramuscular fat stores to a significantly greater degree than the control group. While there is no evidence demonstrating a connection between muscle composition (the proportion of I.M. fat to muscle fiber) and visual appearance, such a suggestion is not unreasonable.

Muscle density is very closely associated with muscle hardness and in reality, the two terms are almost interchangeable, but there is a slightly different quality associated with muscle density that is somewhat difficult to explain. A dense muscle, in addition to displaying a hard appearance, appears as if the muscle fibers themselves are packed tightly together with no room left between them. The biceps of Lee Priest or Ronnie Coleman, when in competition shape, are excellent examples. Although heavy training has often been implicated in the creation of muscle density, heavy training alone, even when bodyfat and sub-q water are reduced to competition levels, does not guarantee muscle density. In fact, this effect can only be maximized through proper steroid selection and few steroids accomplish this better than Trenbolone. Could it be that trenbolone, through its ability to alter muscle composition more profoundly than most other steroids, is partially responsible for the dense appearance it provides?

Another benefit associated with Trenbolone is its nutrient repartitioning effect. A nutrient repartitioner is any substance which promotes the preferential use of nutrients for protein synthesis and glycogen restoration over the storage of adipose tissue. In other words, the food you eat is more likely to be used for muscle growth and less likely to be stored as fat. This nutrient repartitioning effect has a direct effect on food efficiency, as demonstrated in the study below.

In an attempt to determine how effective Trenbolone was for increasing food efficiency in cattle, 72 steers were separated into three groups of 24 according to breed, while controlling for food intake throughout. After slaughter, the carcasses were evaluated for net gain and feed efficiency, with treated steers showing an average increase of 17%, 26%, and 21%. Although food intake remained consistent between the treated and non-treated steers, lean mass increased substantially in the treated group. It is one thing to gain muscle when consuming a surplus of calories, but it is quite another to gain muscle on a number of calories that would normally be reserved for maintenance.

Trenbolone’s potent re-comping effect is a great example of this in the real-world, with many users claiming unrivaled results in this area. I can personally testify to this in my own life. There may be steroids that get you bigger and/or stronger, but nothing changes the body as comprehensively and quickly as Trenbolone.

Trenbolone is a complex steroid, having dozens of internal effects on our physiology. Many of them play a positive role in terms of physique & performance enhancement, but are largely unrecognized by the bodybuilders community as a whole. In this article we touched on a few of these, which hopefully, has wetted your appetite for additional information on the subject.

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As many as 15 percent of men have varicoceles, masses of enlarged and dilated veins in the testicles. There is new evidence that varicoceles, long known to be a cause of male infertility, interfere with the production of testosterone — a crucial hormone to maintaining men’s health.

There is good news too: Microsurgery can increase testosterone levels in these men. Results of new research by physician-scientists at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center are in a recent edition of BJU International.

“Varicoceles are a much more serious problem than previously thought. Low testosterone causes significant health problems in men. Besides causing low energy, decreased muscle strength and sexual problems, it is a major risk factor for osteopenia/osteoporosis and can also cause changes in cognitive and psychological function, in particular, depression,” says Dr. Marc Goldstein, who initiated and led the study.

He is the Matthew P. Hardy Distinguished Professor of Reproductive Medicine and a professor of urology at Weill Cornell Medical College and surgeon-in-chief of male reproductive medicine and surgery at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. He is also senior scientist with the Population Council’s Center for Biomedical Research, located on the campus of Rockefeller University.

Varicoceles usually first appear during or shortly after puberty, explains Dr. Goldstein. “The common wisdom has been to leave them alone unless they are causing pain or infertility. But, as a result of our study, I recommend that teenagers and men with serious varicoceles be referred to a male reproductive urologist experienced in microsurgical varicocelectomy. It is much easier to prevent future fertility problems and low testosterone than wait until the damage has already occurred.”

Adult men with a varicocele and low testosterone should also consider microsurgery sooner rather than later, says Dr. Goldstein. “The microsurgery techniques available today (and developed, in large part, at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell) have a very low complication and failure rate compared with the more invasive techniques used in the past. Microsurgery is a good choice for men with low testosterone as there are no oral medications to increase testosterone. And although testosterone shots, pellets and gels are effective, they are not tolerable or appropriate for many patients, such as men trying to conceive, and are certainly less convenient than making your own testosterone.”

In the current study, Dr. Goldstein and his colleagues measured the preoperative testosterone levels of 325 men with varicoceles and in 510 men without varicoceles. They found that men at every age with varicoceles had significantly lower testosterone levels (416 vs. 469 ng/dL) than the comparison group. After undergoing microsurgical varicocelectomy, testosterone levels significantly increased in 70 percent of the patients, with a mean increase of 178 ng/dL.

“This research indicates that varicocele surgery, at the least, prevents further deterioration of testosterone production,” says Dr. Cigdem Tanrikut, one of the authors of the study. Dr. Tanrikut did a fellowship in male reproductive medicine and microsurgery under Dr. Goldstein. She is currently assistant professor of surgery at Harvard Medical School, a urologist at Massachusetts General Hospital and an adjunct assistant professor of urology and reproductive medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College.

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Types of steroids

Anabolic steroids can be roughly classified into two types, oral and injectable. When you eat food or consume anything orally, the great majority of the ingested substances pass through the liver prior to entering the bloodstream. For this reason, “injectable” anabolic steroids cannot be taken orally because the liver will deactivate the steroids in this “first pass”. Deactivation in the liver usually involves the addition of one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups to increase the solubility of the molecule in water, making excretion in the urine more easily accomplished.

Oral Steroids

Oral steroids involve modification of the parent steroid to make it harder for the liver to degrade the steroid molecules. This modification is almost always the addition of an alkyl (methyl) group at the 17 position of the steroid ring. The liver can still degrade the steroid, but not as effectively as the un-modified steroid. Therefore, oral steroids make several cycles through the bloodstream before being excreted. Most oral steroids are, to various degrees, excreted from the body unchanged.

Injectable Steroids

The injectable anabolic steroids are very effectively degraded in just a single pass through the liver. If this is so, then how can the injectables be effective? The answer is called a “depot” (or reservoir), which allows a regular release of steroid into the bloodstream. As steroid is removed from the bloodstream by the liver, more steroid is being released into the bloodstream from the depot. There are several ways to provide such a reservoir of the steroid.

Suspension

The first way is to use pure testosterone (a crystalline solid) suspended in water. Testosterone has a low solubility in water, and the crystals slowly dissolve in the watery environment of the tissue in which it is injected. The dissolved testosterone is carried throughout the body by the bloodstream. For Testosterone suspension, the “depot” is the actual physical site where the injection is made. The crystals do not migrate to other parts of the body, and the presence of the crystalline testosterone can cause some pain at the injection site. The testosterone dissolves at a (relatively) constant rate, and lasts for a few days in the body. Winstrol suspension is similar.

Esters

The other way to provide a depot of steroid is to use a water-insoluble form of the steroid that can be converted in the body to the parent steroid, which has some solubility in water (bloodstream). Most commonly, the parent molecule is esterified with an organic acid, and the resulting ester is soluble in oil, but only very slightly soluble in water. Commonly used organic acid groups are acetate (C2), propionate (C3), enanthate (C7), decanoate (C10), and undecylenate (C11). The longer the carbon chain of the acid, the more oil-soluble the ester, and the longer it takes for the ester to turn into the parent steroid (de-esterification). A type of enzyme that is found throughout the body facilitates the de-esterification reaction to form the parent steroid from the ester. The enzyme actually catalyzes the reaction in both directions, so it can also attach an organic acid back onto the parent steroid. So, for example, Testosterone Enanthate can actually be turned into testosterone palmitate. There is some good evidence that steroid esters are, to some extent, stored in fat cells.

It is commonly believed that esters form a depot of oil/ester that stays at the injection site. This is not true. While the depot concept holds true for esters (because they slowly release the parent steroid over time), the esters actually disperse throughout the body after injection, prior to (and during) the de-esterification reaction to form the parent steroid. They do not stay at the injection site. For example, the ester testosterone enanthate has been found in tissues throughout the body, including hair samples of subjects who have injected T200. If a bio-contaminant is introduced at the time of injection (non-sterile conditions), the body will attempt to encapsulate the contaminated material, and an abscess will form. In this case it appears as if the ester has remained at the injection site. But under normal sterile conditions, the oily solution will disperse. Injecting too much at one site or injecting too frequently at one site will not cause an abscess.

Transport of Steroids in the Bloodstream

Once the anabolic steroid has been released from the depot (or the oral steroid has been absorbed from the intestine), it is transported throughout the body in the bloodstream. Carrier proteins (Albumin and Sex Hormone binding Globulin) bind about 98% of testosterone under natural conditions. Thus, only 2% of the hormone is free to carry out its actions. When exogenous steroid is present, the level of free steroid is much higher than 2%. Bear in mind that the hormone is not permanently bound to the some of the proteins, but is constantly binding and un-binding from the protein. At any given time, about 2% of the hormone is un-bound in the natural state. So, if the 2% unbound hormone were to magically disappear, then the proteins would release more hormone such that 2% (of the remaining total) would come unbound. The bloodstream is the mechanism by which the hormones reach their target tissues (muscle).

Androgen Receptor Activation

Once a free molecule of anabolic steroid reaches the muscle cell, it diffuses into the cell. The diffusion can be with or without transport-protein assistance. Once in the cell, the anabolic steroids is makes its way to the cell nucleus where it can bind with an androgen receptor , and activate the receptor. Two of these activated receptor complexes join together to form the androgen response element . The androgen response element interacts with DNA in the nucleus, and increases the transcription of certain genes (such as muscle protein genes). As long as the androgen response element is intact, it accelerates gene transcription. Remember, though, that the anabolic steroids and the receptor are in a state of flux (binding and un-binding), just like with the Carrier proteins. So the androgen response element can be deactivated just by losing one of the two anabolic steroids that are bound to the androgen receptor. This equilibrium situation explains why 1 gram per week testosterone is more effective than 1/2 gram per week, even though 1/2 gram appears to be more than enough to saturate all theandrogen receptor in the body. The higher concentration makes it more likely that the receptors will be occupied by an anabolic steroids, and the androgen response element will be intact for a longer period of time, on average.

Other Actions

Activation of the androgen receptor is a key mechanism in the action of anabolic steroids. However, this mechanism by itself does not explain the differences between steroids (i.e., nandrolone activates the androgen receptor better than testosterone, but is not as good of a mass-building product). Other actions involve primarily the central nervous system, and involve actions such as motor activation (muscle coordination) and mood (i.e., aggressiveness). The mechanism by which anabolic steroids effect these actions is not well understood at this time. Another effect occurs in the liver, where some steroids cause the release of certain Growth Factors. The different actions of the different anabolic steroids explains why a stack of two different types of anabolic steroids is often better than one by itself.

Elimination of Steroids

The liver is a primary route to deactivation of anabolic steroids, the chemical structure is changed here to make the steroid more soluble in water for excretion through the kidneys. A good portion of many steroids also are excreted as-is, without any alteration by the liver, or by formation of the sulphate, which is more water soluble. Many in the medical community have believed that anabolic steroids cause liver damage because levels of certain enzymes (AST and ALT) are elevated when steroids are used. Elevated levels of these enzymes are seen in patients with liver damage from other causes, so the conclusion is that anabolic steroids must cause liver damage because these enzymes are elevated. Recent work, however, has shown that a true marker of liver damage, GGT, remains unchanged when some anabolic steroids are used, and now it is questioned whether anabolic steroids are really damaging to the liver (the 17 alpha-alkylated anabolic steroids do cause damage in some rare cases, and this damage is reversible upon cessation of steroid use). The same thought processes were used to claim kidney damage, but that is unlikely as well.

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Testosterone is widely used steroid in bodybuilding that is taken in almost every cycle. Being the basic steroid, this drug has important impact in the growth and development of body muscles.

A popular testosterone compound, well known between bodybuilders/athletes is Testosterone propionate. It represents an oil-based injectable steroid. Testosterone propionate is considering being one of the most effective preparations for gain body mass and strength. Propionate is one of the shortest ester, with active life 2-3 days, that doesn’t mean that it is not efficient. It is the same efficient as other long acting testosterone. The positive side is that it will release more quickly into the bloodstream, which will produce quick gains in size and strength. Being short acting Testosterone propionate also leaves the body quickly, which means that your body can begin to recover from side effects more quickly. Its detection time is about 2-3 weeks. Testosterone propionate is also low toxic on liver.

The negative side is that propionate need to be injected more frequent that other testosterone ester. Bodybuilders find effective to inject every 2 other day. Recommended dose for male sportsmen is 50mg-150mg per day. Testosterone propionate is often used among female bodybuilders, because blood levels are easier to control with it compared to other esters. Recommended dose is 25-50mg per day and should be administered every 5-7 days. The duration of their cycle should not exceed 8 weeks.

As any form of testosterone, Testosterone propionate is partially converted to both estrogen and Dihydrotestosterone. These are often the cause of many side effects such as gynocomastia, water retention, hair loss and prostate enlargement. Although it was noticed that when compared to other testosterone compounds this side effects are milder.
In order to obtain better results in gaining mass and strength bodybuilders/athletes chose to stack it with stanozolol, trenbolone, nandrolone, oxymetholone, methandrostenolone and oxandrolone.

As many other steroid Testosterone Propionate cause different side effects, as: acne, water retention, high blood pressure, aromatization, hair loss, gynecomastia and other. To avoid them it is recommended to take during the cycle ancillary drugs such as nolvadex, proviron and arimidex.

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For bodybuilders, there is no questioning the ability of growth hormone to increase fat loss and improve both muscle growth and definition. However, despite the epidemic of obesity that’s threatening the U.S. economy with a health care crisis, pharmaceutical companies seem unwilling to develop the hormone for this use. This is surprising, given the number of physiologic benefits growth hormone replacement has been shown to provide and the immense revenue stream it would generate.

Body Fat and Anabolic Effects

It’s clear that HGH therapy reduces body fat and increases lean muscle in GH-deficient adults. It is further evident from the results obtained by today’s professional bodybuilders that rGH can also dramatically reduce body fat in healthy, lean adults while maintaining muscle mass.

Growth hormone appears to have more than one mechanism of improving body composition, reducing body fat and increasing lean mass. The fat cells, particularly fat deposited on or within the abdomen, have GH receptors that cause free fatty acids (FFA) to be released when stimulated. These FFA circulate through the body and reduce the demand for protein to be broken down to form glucose during periods of starvation. If the metabolic demand is not high enough, these FFA are re-deposited as fat, but the amino acid pools in muscle and the liver are preserved. This is referred to as the lipolytic effect of GH.

Bodybuilders also benefit from the anabolic effects of rGH. Receptors exist on muscle cells as well, which activate the production of certain proteins in muscle cells, including the formation of IGF-1. IGF-1 is a secondary messenger that acts throughout the body to promote tissue growth. While blood levels of IGF-1 are measured, this predominantly reflects IGF-1 produced in the liver. Determining circulating (blood) levels of GH and IGF-1 is useful for monitoring therapy, but the effects of both hormones are only relevant at the cellular level. When rGH stimulates GH-receptors on muscle cells, the IGF-1 produced only acts strongly on the cells and tissues immediately adjacent.

One matter that is not clearly discussed in Laursen’s review is dosing. For treatment of GH-deficiency, dosing is an individual matter. A patient may be placed on a standard starting dose and followed weekly or monthly by monitoring blood levels of IGF-1, as well as any symptoms or complaints that initiated treatment. Once a normal IGF-1 level is reached, the dose is set unless there is an event that requires a change in treatment. This could include problems with blood glucose, carpal tunnel syndrome, etc.

For the bodybuilder, particularly without the benefit of physician monitoring, this is much more problematic; nearly all research done on humans involved GH-deficient people. It is impossible to predict from that group how rGH treatment may affect people with normal pituitary function (the site of GH production and release). It’s clear that the high doses given to GH-deficient children are excessive for healthy adults. In fact, some bodybuilders have developed acromegaly (an overgrowth of bones and organs resulting in a freakish appearance) from the early days of rGH trial and error.

It’s likely that as the anti-aging movement grows, rGH therapy for middle-aged adults will become more prevalent. Whether this translates to medical supervision and direction of hormone therapy for athletes remains to be seen, though in the current political environment, it is unlikely.

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Clenbuterol, a medically prescribed anti-asthmatic drug, is available in various forms of administration. Bodybuilders usually take it orally, at a dose of 0.02mg per tablet. Bodybuilding pharmacopoeia suggests man should take five to seven tablets per day whereas women should take approximately four. As a non-steroid agent, the drug reportedly has no masculinising side effects rendering it useful for women bodybuilders.

The “receptor sites” processing an affinity for Clenbuterol are claimed to downgrade rapidly; hence, this drug is also cycled. A recommended method of usage, according to gym doctors, entails taking the drug for ten to twelve days then two days off, two days on, for six to eight weeks. One possible side effect is insomnia. Bodybuilders therefore usually take Clenbuterol first thing in the morning.

This drug reportedly exhibits two main physique-enhancing efforts. First, similar to Thyroid Hormones sometimes taken by bodybuilders, Clenbuterol assists fat metabolism. However, whereas Thyroid medication acts as a metabolic stimulant, Clenbuterol acts by raising the body temperature. This forces the body to mobilize its fat reserves as an energy source thereby fueling the heat increase. On a reduced calorie diet, Clenbuterol is considered a useful pre-contest and “cutting” drug. Although it might be anticipated that bodybuilders concerned about steroid side effects will use Clenbuterol as a steroid alternative, its effects are reportedly magnified if ”stacked” with “gear”.

Clenbuterol is considered an anti-catabolic drug. This means it inhibits protein (muscle breakdown). Many users take Clenbuterol in the belief that it will help them maintain strength and muscularity following a steroid “cycle” or at least diminish the losses which usually accompany the catabolic phase after a steroid course. Clenbuterol is valuable in this respect especially if combined with a gonadotrophic stimulant such as HCG.

Possible side effects include restlessness, palpitations, tremor (voluntary trembling of the fingers), headache, increased perspiration, insomnia, muscle spasm, hypertension and nausea. Ethno pharmacologists in “denying injury”, claim side effects are of a temporary nature and usually subside after eight to ten days of use. As noted, users usually overcome possible side effects such as insomnia by taking the drug first thing in the morning. Tremors, another commonly reported side effect, are often considered tolerable or even desirable. Indeed, Clenbuterol users must learn to perceive drug effects. Here an immediate bodily sensation representing a possible cause for concern maybe interpreted positively: the drug is biologically active and will presumably have a more mediate impact upon body-fat reserves and bodily appearance. Parallels with other groups may also be drawn. While bodybuilders using Clenbuterol differ dramatically from breastfeeding mothers in many important respects, there are parallels in the sense that both groups derive reassurance from uncontrollable embodied sensations. Whether the associated benefit is a nourished baby or a carefully cultivated muscular body, physical discomfort is interpreted positively by both groups through social learning processes. However, some Clenbuterol users report worrying side effects.

Speculation about long-term health problems was also voiced by some interviewees. For instance, one female bodybuilding respondent - who reported using Clenbuterol to help with her lower body of cellulite – heard reports that it strips fat from the body’s internal organs. Another respondent, following conversations with a power-lifting clinician, stated Clenbuterol is associated with cardiac problems. However, in the context of other risks and dangers, Clenbuterol-related risk is a relative concern. According to bodybuilding ethno pharmacologists, Clenbuterol is a “mild” bodybuilding drug and relatively “safe” - at least, when compared to strong “androgenic gear” such as Oxymetholone.

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The effects of testosterone are truly amazing as they can affect nearly every aspect of your body. Not only do the effects of testosterone affect you in a physical sense they can also play a massive role on your mental state. Testosterone is one of the most important hormones our body produces; in-fact, without it we would not be able to function to our fullest potential. To understand the effects of testosterone and the hormones importance in the body the best route to take is to look at the benefits the hormone can provide and what occurs when levels fall. When we look at low testosterone this can be very telling, perhaps more so than anything else and as millions of men in the U.S. alone suffer from low level conditions this may be something you want to pay attention to.

Testosterone is a hormone of the androgen class and as such is the primary androgen the body produces. Both men and women require testosterone, although men do in larger amounts; a healthy adult male produces nearly ten times as much testosterone as a female. The effects of testosterone are vital to our function in a sexual, direct physical and mental capabilities and well-being. By-in-large the hormone can be understood by what it maintains and controls. The effects of testosterone include but are not limited to:

  • Sexual Performance
  • Maintaining Libido (desire for sex)
  • Lean Tissue Growth
  • Lean Tissue Preservation
  • The Maintenance of Physical Strength
  • Repair of damaged Tissue (even bone to a degree)
  • Energy Levels
  • Mental Clarity
  • Mood & Disposition
  • Maintenance of a Well-Functioning Metabolism

When our testosterone levels are adequate each category above functions in its proper and desired fashion. When our testosterone levels are increased beyond a normal range we thrive beyond general capacity in each and every category. Conversely when levels fall we suffer and when left ignored we truly begin to suffer and often in a severe manner. Lets take a look at what can happen when levels fall and it is here you will truly be able to see the importance of the effects of testosterone.

There are many reasons our testosterone levels may fall but by far the most common reason is simply age. As we age our natural hormone production goes into decline and regarding testosterone this can begin to occur in many men as young as 30 years old. While the majority of men will not have a problem until the reach their 40s far more men than you might think will have a problem much sooner; in-fact, while rare it can even occur in your 20s.

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In the world of miracle drugs, Cialis is one of the most respected names due to the fact that it is simply exceptional for curing erectile dysfunction. In the world of bodybuilding, Cialis is a recommended product during post cycle therapy (PCT) apart from being beneficial for those who want their natural hormone levels to normalize.

The inactive ingredients of Cialis tablets are magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, talc, titanium dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, iron oxide, lactose monohydrate, and triacetin.

You will be surprised to know that Cialis is a far better option than Viagra and Levitra as it has a greater active life of approximately 36-48 hours. Also known as Tadalafil and Tadalifil citrate, Cialis can be used with or without meals. It is to be taken in an oral form before 4 1/2 hours before exercise or sexual activities. Its recommended dose is 2.5 mg/day and can be increased to 5 mg/day after consultation with a qualified medical practitioner.

It is important to note that Cialis must not be taken in doses other than specified on the pack or medical advice. Moreover, Cialis tablets are to be kept at a controlled room temperature of 25°C (77°F) with excursions permitted up to 15-30°C (59-86°F).

In short, Cialis is one drug that you can easily trust. After all, it has benefited millions and being used by some more millions.

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Primobolan, also known as Methenolone Acetate, is one of those performance enhancing drugs that have never experienced a fall in demand. This is not just because this performance enhancer is easily accessible and affordably available on the web, but also because it does not lead to side effects and is a wonder drug to say the least.

One of the best things about Primobolan is that users can expect to burn fat besides adding high quality muscle in as short as 4-6 weeks.

The chemical name of this performance enhancer is 17ß-hydroxy-1-methyl-5a-androst-1-en-3-one acetate and its molecular weight is 344.488 g/mol at the base. This performance enhancing drug has the chemical formula of C22H32O3 and it has the anabolic/androgenic ratio of 88:44-57.

The drug has the potential of stimulating the body to produce more of active testosterone and total testosterone besides promoting sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels to a significant extent. In addition to all these benefits, Primobolan also demonstrates efficacy in reducing female estrogen and androgenic DHT levels. Dramatic muscle mass and body strength gains are two easy results attained with use of this miracle drug.

Primobolan is best used in doses of 2-3 mg/kg of body weight on a daily basis and is commonly stacked with Clenbuterol, T3, Deca Durabolin, Testosterone, Dianabol, and Anadrol. This drug is not recommended for pregnant women since its usage can cause virilization in the female newborn. 

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Anabolic androgenic steroid undoubtedly carry with them phenomenal effects and while the side-effects of such use is often greatly exaggerated when it comes to women on steroids such exaggeration often holds a bit more truth. Women on steroids unlike their counterparts have quite a few less options and extra caution must necessarily be implored; however, while the side-effects of use can be brutal with responsible use and a sound anabolic education they can be largely avoided. We’ve all seen the women on steroids who look like they supplement with steroids; generally speaking they possess strong male dominant characteristics as they have lost a great deal of their femininity. This should come as no surprise as anabolic androgenic steroids owe their allegiance to the primary male sex hormone testosterone. While both men and women naturally produce testosterone men do so in far greater amounts, nearly ten times as much. For this reason many women on steroids will begin to show strong male characteristics when use goes too far.

In many cases women on steroids who show signs of steroid use in-terms of masculinity do so due to the use of anabolic steroids of a strong androgenic nature. Steroids that possess this nature can cause strong virilization by-which a woman may experience body hair growth, a deepening of the vocal chords, clitoral enlargement and even facial restructuring of a more male dominant nature in extreme circumstances. Most women who desire anabolic supplementation are highly advised to stay away from androgenic based anabolics or anabolics that carry with them high androgenic properties. By doing so most women will largely avoid such virilization effects while enjoying the positive benefits of performance enhancing while simultaneously maintaining their femininity. However, some women will be able to supplement with low doses of androgens safely but the key phrase is “low dose”; nevertheless these women must understand the odds are not in their favor in-terms of protecting feminine appeal.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a very androgenic based anabolic steroid; however, DHT derivatives have been shown to be the best steroids for women in-terms of protecting femininity. The androgenic effect of virilization appears to be very low with such steroids and for this reason most women on steroids will choose to supplement with these DHT derivatives. While there are many DHT based anabolic steroids three in particular prove to meet this end with the greatest efficiency and safety and they include Winstrol, Anavar and Primobolan. However, it is very important to note, symptoms of virilization may still occur but if they do, in most cases one can simply discontinue use and be in the clear; it is when the symptoms are ignored and they set in where most run into trouble. Of the three DHT derivatives mentioned by far Anavar proves to be the safest for use.

It is often believed that women on steroids have or will in-fact sacrifice all femininity but this is a dubious assumption. Many women on steroids build and maintain very beautiful physiques ripe with feminine appeal; those that do simply understand what to use and how to use it. For years some of the most beautiful fitness models from around the world have supplemented with such hormones and you’d be very surprised if you learned which ones.

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Steroid usage is catching rage among people by the day, especially the younger players. Where its use is in no way fatal, it would still remain in one’s best favor if they are taken with the help of a medical expert. Many people think that reading about them in magazines or the internet is enough. Where knowledge imparted through these mediums is not wrong, there are minute things that one must know while practically administering steroids.

Hence do not, under any circumstances skimp on your doctor’s visit if you are following a steroid regime. This also becomes necessary because many a times excessive usage can lead to serious illnesses. So let’s have a look at three components of fitness that a user should focus at while administering anabolics.

These are his:

  • Cardio-vascular health
  • Muscular strength and endurance
  • Flexibility

So to ensure that your fitness levels are maintained during the administration of steroids, it is imperative to keep up with cardio along with plenty of stretching. This will greatly help in regulating the cholesterol level of the user as well. Flexibility will aid in circulation as well as assist with injury prevention.

Many steroid users often say that their cholesterol levels shoot up to great level after a cycle but are readily brought back to normal with proper nutrition and aggressive cardio workouts.

For flexibility, stretching at least three times a week for 20 minutes each time greatly helps. Also, it is becomes important to hold any given stretch for at least 20 seconds at a time. This is because durations less than that can serve to make the muscle contract and tighten up, thereby making it to become counterproductive to flexiblity and injury prevention. The user will feel a slow release when one holds a stretch steadily for over 20 seconds and stretching of the muscle will begin to happen. This is called stretching in its true sense and is what we should aim for.

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Maintaining proper amounts of testosterone in the body is important to sustain overall health and well-being. Testosterone is a steroid hormone necessary for enhanced libido, energy, immune function, and protection against osteoporosis. In addition, this hormone supports the development of certain male attributes like hair patterns, muscles, and voice modulation. Although testosterone is considered a male hormone, women also need small quantities of it for muscle and bone strength. In general, an adult human male produces about eight to ten times more testosterone than their female counterparts. Testosterone production in men increases under the puberty stage. Normal testosterone levels in the bloodstream is about 359 and 1230 nanograms. As people age, a decline in testosterone production is experienced. This decline causes low sex drive, constant tiredness, depression, and loss of strength. Furthermore, very low levels of testosterone in men increases the risk of obesity and heart attack.

Low testosterone levels result from inability of the testes to produce adequate quantities of testosterone. This development affects the whole body system and causes many physiologic, chemical, and hormonal changes. Age is not the only culprit for the drop of testosterone production. According to David Zava, PhD., the president of ZRT Laboratory, a leading hormone research lab in the United States, many factors contribute to low testosterone levels. Environmental toxins, prolonged stress, and depression are just some of the factors that may trigger the body to lower testosterone reproduction. Lifestyle can also be a factor in lowered production of this hormone. Excessive drinking, smoking lack of exercise, and unhealthy diet may damage the testes and lower testosterone production. Other reasons for low production of this substance are hypertension, use of anabolic steroids, prescription or non-prescription medications, surgeries, cancers, and infections.

People can improve testosterone levels by changing their lifestyles, improving their diet, or by including exercise programs in their daily lives. Exercise and other physical activities are proven to show measurable improvements in testosterone levels. However, these activities should be done properly to avoid over-training. Over-training causes fatigue and diminish sterility, it temporarily reduces sperm quality and quantity. This happens because the body literally “kills? itself during exercise to build and improve the body and needs rest to attain normal cell development. Intense physical activities may reduce the level of hormones in the bloodstream that affects sperm production. These sperm levels return to nearly normal after about three days. They added that drinking coffee after a few hours of training may protect sperm quality because of the antioxidants that are found in caffeine.

If these adjustments do not work, there are different options that are available to treat this deficiency. General treatments include testosterone injections, patches, and pills. Many products like herbal supplements and vitamin products that claim to boost hormones levels are available in the market. In addition to these medication, replacement therapy can also be done to promote testosterone production. Improved muscle mass, increased bone density, higher energy levels, decreased irritability and anxiety are some of the benefits associated with testosterone replacement therapy.

While low testosterone levels pose a potential threat to the well-being and health of many old men, the treatments are not simple. Individuals are encouraged to talk to doctors or other medical specialists and weigh the advantages and disadvantages of many remedies for low testosterone levels. Increasing testosterone levels in men is possible, but it should only be done with the advices of medical professionals.